Katana Sword was used by samurai warriors in ancient Japan. This sword has a long blade with a curved tip and a hilt made of wood. Today, this sword is still used in the martial arts such as iaido, kendo and aikido. To make a katana, the swordsmith needs to use high-quality steel known as tamahagane. This is achieved by heating iron sand and charcoal in a furnace and hammering and folding the metal to create layered impressions. The outer layer is harder than the core, allowing the smith to bend and sharpen the sword.
After the steel is cooled, it is reheated in a charcoal fire for ‘Yaki-ire’ (tempering). The smith strikes the blade with a kozuchi (light hammer) to straighten and shape it. The Nakago (core) is also tempered and formed at this time. The resulting Martensite is very hard.
When the katana is finished, it is polished using a series of progressively finer stones. This process brings out the beauty of the hamon and makes the blade smooth and strong. During this step, the sword craftsman inspects the blade for any scratches or unevenness. Then he drills holes for a Mekugi (fastening pin) and a Tsuka (handle grip).
The Tsuka is typically made of wood, with silk or cotton wrapped around it to improve the grip. The tang is secured by the Mekugi and a Kashira (cap or pommel) is added to the end of the handle. The keywords I will use are